Improvements in Shoulder Endurance Following a Baseball-Specific Strengthening Program in High School Baseball Players

Improvements in Shoulder Endurance Following a Baseball-Specific Strengthening Program in High School Baseball Players

 

 

(Moore et al.; Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach; May/June 2013)

 

  • Fourteen baseball players attended three supervised training sessions per week for 20 weeks. Strengthening of the upper extremity was performed with a specific progression that utilized readily available equipment. Testing was completed at baseline and at 4, 8, and 20 weeks. The posterior shoulder endurance test was performed to assess muscular endurance. Glenohumeral internal and external rotation range of motion and strength were measured.
  • Posterior shoulder endurance improved from 30 ± 14 repetitions at baseline to 66 ± 26 at 4 weeks and 88 ± 36 at 20 weeks (P < 0.05). Glenohumeral internal rotation range of motion and the glenohumeral internal/external rotation strength ratio remained similar over the course of the program. Implementation of a preseason training program effectively increased shoulder muscular endurance while maintaining strength ratios and range of motion throughout the 20-week program. The Association of Foot Arch Posture and Prior History of Shoulder or Elbow Surgery in Elite-Level Baseball Pitchers (Feigenbaum, Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 2013) Note: Conducted by Lee Kaplan, MD and Sean Cunningham, ATC; both employed by MIA
  • A convenience sample of 77 pitchers was recruited from a Division I university team and a professional baseball franchise. Subjects who had a history of shoulder or elbow surgery to the pitching arm were classified as cases. Subjects who met the criteria for classification of pes planus or pes cavus based on longitudinal arch angle were classified as having abnormal foot arch posture. Odds ratios were calculated to examine the association between abnormal foot arch posture and pitching-arm injury requiring surgery.
  • Twenty-three subjects were classified as cases. The odds of being a case were 3.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 9.6; P = .02) times greater for subjects with abnormal foot arch posture and 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 8.1; P = .04) times greater for subjects with abnormal foot posture on the lunge leg. Abnormal foot arch posture and a surgical history in the pitching shoulder or elbow may be associated. Because the foot and its arches are adaptable and change over time, the pathomechanics of this association should be further explored.