Robinson had reached base with a pinch-hit single, his third hit in 17 at-bats since being recalled from Triple-A at the start of the month.
"It feels like my shoulder jarred a little bit," Robinson said about an hour after the injury. "It's just sore right now."
"It looks like it's in pretty bad shape," manager Mike Matheny added.
Robinson has endured shoulder injuries before. He sustained a sprained right shoulder here at PNC Park last July that required a 15-day stay on the disabled list. Back in 2010, his season ended in May after a dislocated shoulder -- also on a slide into second base -- required surgery.
Robinson noted that this injury felt different than the one that led to surgery.
"It didn't feel like that," he said. "It just felt like a jar. When I did it in '10, I was in so much pain that I had to go get pain pills. Right now, I'm in a little bit of pain, but it's not terrible. Hopefully, it's nothing serious."
Perhaps as an indication of the pending roster move, outfielder Randal Grichuk was pulled from Triple-A Memphis' game in the ninth inning on Monday. Grichuk, who is already on the 40-man roster, would be able to cover any of the outfield positions off the bench for St. Louis.
As for Adams, the only evidence of his contact with a railing along the right-field line was a cut on the outside and inside part of his lip. He sustained the gash after back peddling into Kolten Wong as both pursued a Travis Snider popup.
Jenifer Langosch is a reporter for MLB.com. Read her blog, By Gosh, It's Langosch, and follow her on Twitter @LangoschMLB. This story was not subject to the approval of Major League Baseball or its clubs.