Goldschmidt didn't realize the extent of the injury immediately after the game. He took his base after being hit and stayed in until the game ended.
"I was holding out hope," Goldschmidt said. "I was staying pretty positive, wasn't trying to think about it being broken. But I knew it was a possibility.
"There was some swelling. I knew there was something, but I was hoping … it was a bad bruise or something like that."
Both Goldschmidt and manager Kirk Gibson said a timetable for the first baseman's return has not yet been determined.
"You always want to get back as quickly as possible and play, but you need to be safe about it, too," Goldschmidt said. "If it's ready and they're going to let me, yes, I want to play, play every day, as much as I can.
"I'll work hard at the rehab, and if there's a way to speed it up as much as I can while being smart about it, I'll do anything that they'll allow."
Goldschmidt has been the most consistent player on the D-backs this season. Friday's game was only the second game he didn't start this season. Entering Friday, he was third in the Major Leagues in innings played.
"It hurts," Gibson said. "He's one of our best players, for sure. One of the best players in the league."
Gibson said the team is trying to keep its options at first base open going forward and didn't rule out making a move to acquire a first baseman from outside the organization. Taking Goldschmidt's roster spot is outfielder Alfredo Marte, who was recalled from Triple-A Reno.
Jordan Pacheco, who was in the mix to play third when Martin Prado was traded to the Yankees, was in the starting lineup at first base on Saturday for the second time in as many games. Gibson also said Mark Trumbo, who played 299 games at first base while with the Angels, would be considered for the spot.
"We'll try to get him ready in case we decide to move him over there," Gibson said. "We'll at least have the flexibility."