The D-backs' 21 hits also set the club record for a nine-inning game, and their 13 extra-base hits set a franchise-high mark as well.
With the roof open for much of the game, balls flew out of the yard. The D-backs mashed five homers, while Dodgers outfielders Carl Crawford and Yasiel Puig each hit one.
D-backs first baseman Paul Goldschmidt led the charge, blasting home runs in the seventh and eighth innings that put the home team up by six and 11 runs, respectively.
Like the offense as a whole, Goldschmidt had a record-setting day, scoring a franchise-best five runs in the victory. It was the fifth multihomer game of his career, and his six RBIs were a career high.
"It was a good game, but we need to go out there and try to have some good at-bats tomorrow and the days after that," Goldschmidt said.
The D-backs never trailed Saturday, as they got off to a seven-run lead in the second inning against Dodgers ace Clayton Kershaw (2-1).
After a walk and a single, second baseman Cliff Pennington, who got the start after Aaron Hill was scratched due to a sore shoulder, roped a triple into left field, scoring a pair.
Center fielder A.J. Pollock and shortstop Chris Owings matched Pennington by hitting back-to-back triples, giving the D-backs three triples in one frame for the first time in team history.
"Hitting is contagious, you hear that all the time and I truly believe that," Owings said. "A lot of those extra-base hits, everybody just wanted to join in. Two triples in a row there was pretty cool."
After Kershaw was called for a balk and issued the second walk of the inning to left fielder Cody Ross, Dodgers manager Don Mattingly called on the bullpen.
The 1 2/3-inning outing was the second shortest of Kershaw's career, and the D-backs' seven runs were the most anyone had scored off the 26-year-old lefty since the Cardinals tagged him for eight runs on July 24, 2012.
"They swung the bats extremely well. Anything in the middle of the plate, they didn't miss it," Dodgers catcher A.J. Ellis said. "That's what good teams do, and that's a good team over there."
Rookie pitcher Chase Anderson (2-0) got the ball for the D-backs and faced what appeared to be the tall task of squaring off against Kershaw, but he outlasted the Los Angeles star and picked up his second win in as many Major League starts.
The Texas native pitched five strong innings of two-run ball before struggling in the sixth, surrendering a three-run homer to Carl Crawford before Gibson brought in Evan Marshall with two outs remaining in the frame and the D-backs up by four.
"Thanks for the offense today to get that win," Anderson said. "This is definitely on them."