Infante, who dove to his left for Skip Schumaker's drive in the third inning with the bases loaded, had the ball hit off his right hand and trickle into the outfield for a two-run double that gave the Redbirds a 6-4 lead.
Following the play, Infante was checked on by assistant athletic trainer Mike Kozak and his teammates, but remained in the game.
"It's tough, but broken fingers, you can come back in a short period of time," Marlins manager Jack McKeon said after the game.
The Marlins second baseman fielded a grounder for the final out of the fourth and singled in the bottom of the frame for his third hit in as many at-bats.
Wes Helms replaced Infante at second.
Emilio Bonifacio, who started at shortstop, said he first thought it was Infante's nail that was bothering him until he saw his double-play partner swing the bat with his finger sticking out.
"He couldn't grip the ball, it was really hard," Bonifacio said. "During the inning he told [McKeon] he couldn't keep playing, and that's when I figured ... because Omar is hard to come out of the game."
With Hanley Ramirez already listed as day to day with a left shoulder sprain following his dive on an over-the-shoulder catch Tuesday night in New York against the Mets, Bonifacio started the game at short and Greg Dobbs was at the hot corner.
No timetable has been given for Infante's return, but if the Marlins need to make a move and place him on the disabled list, Ozzie Martinez could get the call from Triple-A New Orleans since he's on the 40-man roster.
"We'll probably come up with somebody," McKeon said. "I don't know. Your guess is as good as mine."
Christina De Nicola is an associate reporter for MLB.com. This story was not subject to the approval of Major League Baseball or its clubs.