Manager Joe Girardi said the team made the decision because the Yankees would be facing two lefty starters in their four-game series against the Blue Jays -- Jo-Jo Reyes in Thursday's opener and Ricky Romero on Saturday.
Golson, who hit .261 in 23 at-bats for the Yankees last season, was batting .295 with five homers, 25 RBIs and six stolen bases for Triple-A Scranton/Wilkes-Barre. While there, the 25-year-old right-handed-hitting speedster played 31 games in center field and 14 at each outfield corner.
Golson hurt his right hamstring in early May and missed about a month, but said it's feeling much better now.
"It was surprising," Golson said about his first callup of the year. "I was in Austin, [Texas], for the All-Star break yesterday, and then they called me and I got on the plane."
Rodriguez underwent arthroscopic surgery to correct a meniscus tear on his right knee on Monday, and is expected to miss four to six weeks. Eduardo Nunez is expected to get the majority of the playing time at third base while Rodriguez is out, with Ramiro Pena getting some action there.
"I talked to him the day after [the surgery], and it went well," Girardi said. "Now it's just start rehabbing, start slow and hopefully we can get him back as soon as possible."
Alden Gonzalez is a reporter for MLB.com. Read his columns and his blog, listen to his podcast and follow him on Twitter. This story was not subject to the approval of Major League Baseball or its clubs.