The D-backs were in need of a catcher after they decided earlier in the day to not tender a contract to Welington Castillo, who became a free agent. The team also lost catcher Tuffy Gosewisch recently when he was claimed off waivers.
Mathis, 33, has hit .197 over 12 Major League seasons. He has been with the Marlins for the past four seasons and hit .238 in 132 plate appearances.
Mathis is renowned for his ability to call a game and his pitching framing skills.
Castillo, 29, hit .264 with 14 homers and 68 RBIs last year for the D-backs.
Steve Gilbert has covered the D-backs for MLB.com since 2001. Follow him on Twitter @SteveGilbertMLB. This story was not subject to the approval of Major League Baseball or its clubs.