Cardinals manager Mike Matheny described the injury as a "little spasm."
"It wasn't allowing me to swing the way I wanted to," Adams said.
With Adams out, Randal Grichuk entered the game in center field, Jeremy Hazelbaker shifted from center to left and Brandon Moss moved from left field to first.
Adams had been hot at the plate, batting .381 with four home runs in the month of May to raise his average to .320 on the season.
Alex Putterman is a reporter for MLB.com based in Washington. This story was not subject to the approval of Major League Baseball or its clubs.