The injury occurred in a Triple-A game, according to Marlins general manager Michael Hill.
Hill added that more on a timetable for recovery will be known after Dominguez is examined by the team doctor.
The 21-year-old Dominguez is a former first-round Draft pick who entered Spring Training as the frontrunner to win the third-base job.
Dominguez, however, struggled at the plate, batting .190 in Grapefruit League action in 43 at-bats. He was sent down late in Spring Training, and Donnie Murphy is handling most of the action at third for Florida.
Ruben Gotay is expected to get more playing time at third base for Triple-A New Orleans.
The Marlins have been hoping that Dominguez would get some seasoning in Triple-A, show improvement at the plate, and then be an option to be called up in a month or so.
It is unclear how long Dominguez will be out, but it would seem at least two to four weeks at minimum.