Rodriguez, who hit 33 homers in what he called a "Cinderella season" after returning from a historic drug suspension, connected on a 1-0 pitch in the first inning from left-hander Adam Morgan.
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Ivan Nova started for New York, permitting a Ruf RBI double among two hits over two innings. Nova, who is competing with CC Sabathia to serve as the Yankees' No. 5 starter, walked none and struck out one.
Nova said that he feels "great" in his second year back from Tommy John surgery and that he is not concerned with trying to impress manager Joe Girardi or pitching coach Larry Rothschild.
"I just have to prove to myself I can be in the rotation. I don't have to prove anything [to them]," Nova said. "They have seen enough from me. This is my seventh year in the league, so they have seen enough. I don't worry about trying to impress my manager or pitching coach. I just have to concentrate and do my job."
Morgan worked two innings, allowing two runs and two hits.
Up next for the Phillies: Phillies right-hander Jeremy Hellickson starts Friday's Grapefruit league game against the Braves at Bright House Field. First pitch is scheduled for 1:05 p.m. ET, and it will air on MLB.TV. The Phillies are expected to choose between Hellickson and Aaron Nola as their Opening Day starter.
Up next for the Yankees: Right-hander Bryan Mitchell (0-2, 6.37 ERA in 2015) will make his first spring start on Friday as the Yankees visit the Tigers in Lakeland, Fla., for a 1:05 p.m. ET contest. Detroit will give the ball to 2011 Cy Young Award winner Justin Verlander.
Bryan Hoch is a reporter for MLB.com. Follow him on Twitter @bryanhoch, on Facebook and read his MLBlog, Bombers Beat. This story was not subject to the approval of Major League Baseball or its clubs.